Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu (CKP) (Marathi: चांद्रसेनीय कायस्थ प्रभू) is the name of an social group from India. Technically, it is a sub caste of the Kshatriya caste.
Members of this community are mostly found in certain parts of Maharashtra in India. They are said to be one of the designated "brave helpers of Maharashtra" as proclaimed by Shivaji, the founder of the Maratha empire in his "Mala Ek Swapna Ahe" speech. Their origins are known to be in some of the most urban places in India including Mumbai, Thane, Nagpur, Pune, Kalyan, Nashik and some parts of the state Madhya Pradesh. Several forts controlled by these people have been discovered. This community is found mainly in old Kolaba District (now Raigad and Ratnagiri) and in Mumbai and Thane.
The community is also one of the small number who can be considered at par with Brahmins as they have been given the right to perform of Vedic rituals as priests. Roots of this community lie in Kashmir wherein their current location is a result of downfall of various kingdoms which were ruled or were resided in by the community's families (7th-8th Century A.D.) The last known migration was in 1305 A.D. wherein 42 families finally arrived in Maharashtra.
The presence of the CKP community was coveted by kingdoms as citizens or immigrants within India.
Common last names are Thakre (Thackeray), Chitre,Bendre, Gadkari, Karnik,Karkhanis,Khale, Deshmukh,Chitnis,Kulkarni,Sule, Dighe, Pradhan, Gupte, Tamhane, Likhite, Raje, Bhise, Mokashi, Deshpande,Palkar, Tipnis and Nachane.
In actuality there are only 42 original last names that can be linked to the community which derive from the last surviving families that migrated to Maharashtra in 1305 A.D. The remaining surnames are derived from the 42 original last names and there is a possibility that there may have been other original last names but were lost as the families died.
The word 'Chandraseniya' by some historians is ascribed to the original home of the community in the valley of Chenab in Kashmir a river also known as Chandra in Sanskrit. It is said that the word 'seniya' is corruption of Sanskrit 'shreni' meaning a group of people. Thus the term chandraseniya literally means the people of chandra or chenab.
The community still exists, and is one of the most charitable organizations in India's National Database of Archives. Recently, a community leader donated over $ 1 million for the Hurricane Katrina relief
Descendants of King Chandrasen, his son Kayastha and Kayastha's son Somraj ruled Kashmir & most of central India. For people these kings were nice & next to god and hence were called as Prabhu. Chandrasen, son of great King Sahastrararjun, was killed by Parshuram (The great warrior, in order to fulfill his wish to kill every Kshtriya on earth). Chandrasen's pregnant wife Ganga / Kamala took asylum with Dalabhya mooni.
Parshuram demanded mooni to hand over Ganga, but the mooni very wisely asked him to spare this pregnant women. Parshuram agreed to Mooni's request and blessed her that the child born from her ' KAYA " would be called KAYASTHA.
Parshuram said as his father's kingdom has been destroyed; he and his ascendant would live with the help of sword and ink (Asijivi/Masijivi).
This is a mythological story but all agree in saying that it means the descendents of the king Chandrasen who was the Kshatriya (warrior by profession) king, the son of Sahastrararjun of the Haiyaya family.
Another point is tribes of kaya province are Kayastha. The province kaya means Ayodhaya. According to Mr. H.S.Wilson (1819) Kayastha means the Supreme Being, the writer caste born of Kshatriya father and Shudra mother.
In the 7th and 8th century, Kayasthas were in Kashmir and later they shifted from Kashmir to northern India and madhya bharat. The word Prabhu means supreme or powerful.
As we read the Origin of CKP's is from Kashmir and North India. The Pandavas , Kauravas, Gupt Vansh are all Chandravanshis. Sometime during the advent of Budhism, the last CKP kingdom was lost and the community moved to Mandugadh where they held important positions in the court of the Parmars.
After Mandugadh fell to Allaudin Khilji, the Prabhus fled from Mandu. They went into Gujarat and they via sea landed in the Konkan strip where they made their homes. Totally 42 families came to Maharashtra in 1305.
In Maharashtra they were successful but faced lot problems from Brahmin Community, especially the Kokanastha Brahmins. Between 1400 and 1900 Brahmin's layed Gramanyas i.e. Boycott on them. Each time the CKP families got various proofs of they being Prabhu's, including letter from Shankaracharya.
The most famous example is when Mr.Balaji Avji Chitnis wanted to perform the Thread ceremony ( Munj ) on his son. Brahmins did not allow him saying " Prabhu's are not Brahmins and are from lower caste, hence thread ceremony cannot be performed on them". Mr.Chitnis got letter from then Shankarachaya Vidhanrusingha Bharati from Karvir Peeth, in year 1913, which said "Prabhu's are Rajanya Kshatriyas (Royal warriors)". Only Rajanya Kshatriyas (warrior by profession ) are allowed to do thread ceremony, so though Maratha's are Kshatriyas thread ceremony is not performed on them. Only exceptions were Bhonsale's who were decedents of Sisodia Royal family of Rajasthan. The Letter written by Shankaracharya can be found in office of Bombay Gazzette.
One interesting point came to me that, our Gotra is nothing but the main originator man. All were Rushi's or Sadhus if you add Charya to each gotra you get the Rushi's name.
Sr. # Surname Sub-surnames Gotra Family God Ancestor Remarks
1 Bendre: Durve, Khalapurkar, Gorehekar, Kulkarni, Panvelkar, Siddheshwarpurkar Maitraya Ekveera, Khenderao, Bhairav Vinayakdev Ganesh Durve From Beedar village hence Bendre
2 Gupte: Garude, Bahire, Ambegaonkar, Deshpande, Kharsikar,Penkar Ghardekar,Mokashi Vangikar, Purandare, vadvathkar, Angre, Kulkarni, Mokashi, Natekar, Medhekar Kasshap Bapdev, Khenderao, Bahiroba, Ekveera Jagganath Vasudev Gupte Because of political reason remained underground hence Gupte
3 Badhire: Karkhanis, Chitnis, Dalvi, Nachane, Nadkar, Palikar Kasshap Bapdev, Khenderao, Bahiroba, Ekveera Shulpani Bhairavnath from vardhivardhan i.e. main kul
4 Garude: Deshmukh, Kulkarni, Cheulkar Kasshap Bapdev, Khenderao, Bahiroba, Ekveera Jagganath Had eagle on their flag hence Garude
5 Dalvi: Donde, Dalsen, Mathure Bhrugva Amba, Nimba, Ekvera, Khandoba, Vhagrambari, Singhabari Mahinath Laxmiday Dalvi Dalpati or Senapati hence Dalvi
6 Nachane: Mathure, Nagle, Nadkar, Potnis, Karkhanis, Kulkarni, Mahadkar Bhrugva Amba, Nimba, Ekvera, Khandoba, Vhagrambari, Singhabari Veersen Chandrahas Nadkar From Bundelkhnad's state Nagode
7 Kamathe: Kamte, Karkhanis, Kale, Palkar, Vasaikar Krupa Mahalaxmi, Mahakali, Saraswati, Ekvera, Khanderao, Guraling Shivram Mahadev Khamte
8 Dighe: Dixit Deshpande, Urvekar, Mudekar, Kondukar, Kathewad, Diwanji, Dharkar, Sindkar, Ambedkar, Panshetkar, Dasokar Mugaonkar, kadvelkar, Saikar Vivsvikar etc. Kripacharya Shreejannani Gopal Pabhuhari Ramchandra Dixit Kulpursh took yagna Diksha hence Dixit
9 Gadkari: Gadekar, Badlapurkar, Vakaskar, Ghosalkar Raibhya Mahalaxmi Bahuvijay Gopaldev Gadkari
10 Ravara: Raghave, Raivar, Rairao Raibhya Mahakali
11 Raje, Kshipre: Shatriya, Raje, Raorao, Chitnis, Gwalerkar, Kinavlikar, Yudhvarkar Raibhya, Dalabhya Aekvira Dhayaji Gopalji Shipre, Lakshmidev Govindnath Raje Residents of Shipra lake edge
12 Shetye: Shetye Devla Aekvira Baldevji Sudas Shetye From the word 'Shresta' (Great) to Shet, further to Shetye
13 Jaywant: Jaywant Agastha Surya Krupashankar, Neelkant, Jaywant From Jaypal to Jaywant
14 Shringarpure: Tungare, Rajapurkar, Mahadkar, Enamdar, Patil, Godgaonkar, Fadnis, Tipnis, Veerkar, Durgwadkar, Deshpande, Mulherkar, Kochkar, Kulkarni, Karkanis Adhikari, Yesvirkar Agastha Surya Kamnath Gangadhar Tungare, Bagirth, Trimkanath Shengre The Authority of Shringivirpur village hence Shringarpure
15 Javale: Javalkar Agastha Surya Mahasen Rudrasen Javale Residents of Javale territory hence the surname Javale
16 Karnik: Karnataki, Karnati, Parasnis, Tornekar, Cheulkar, Mahadkar, Bormadkar, Ashikar, Ahmedabadwale Bhargav Surya Gangadhar Bheravnath Karnik Shrikaran- Writers
17 Pradhan: Nagothanekar, Deshpande, Chitnis, Kharkar, Sindkar, Saikar, Salvankar, Tembrajkar, Talekar, Kapkar, Badhanakar, Jhbulpadkar, Pehedlikar Bhargav Surya Hirdas Maval Prime Minister of King hence the surname Pradhan
18 Randive: Randip, Kanekar, Talekar, Vatekar, Chandorkar, Vasaikar, Mulki, Vadavkar, Petiwale, Bagwadkar, Sankyayen Surya Kalyandev Vijayshankar Randip Brave in war (ran) hence Randive
19 Sule: Aathonekar, Nadsurkar, Deshmukh, Abangrao, Mahagaonkar, Varsolikar Sankyayen Surya Amarnath Keshavnath Sulhe From Shure to Sule
20 Sathputhe: Sathputhe Sankyayen Surya Rukmdev Balchandra Sathputhe Seven sons i.e. Sathputhe
21 Patne: Patankar, Palwankar, Juthrakar, Karkanis Sankyayen Aekvira, Kanderao, Bapdev Vileshwar Sadanand Patne Residents of Pattan.
22 Tamhane: Tamhane, Tambe, Dakwale, Taskar, Manik, Aandhurkar, Vedsekar, Kihimkar, Palgadkar, Sabnis, Kaoldhare, Pimpledhare, Sachinwale Vashisth Khanderao, Bihiri, Vagjayi, Navlayi, Bapdev Mahadev Baldev Tamhane From North India Travni/Tamhani to Tamhane
23 Fanse/Phanse: Mulshikar, Panvelkar, Kelvekar, Kasgiwale Gautam Khanderao, Aekvira, Bhairav Bhanudas Shumbhdev Fanse From Bhanusurya, Bhanuse to Bhanse further descendants became Fanse
24 Khatik: Khatikar Jamdagni Khanderao, Aekvira, Bhairav Jitvahu Vaikuntnath Sastikar Famous as Khyatik then renamed to Khatik
25 Vaidya: Fadnis, Pavekar, Dhaferkar, Kondgaonkar, Kondvikar, Pathudekar, Sindkar, Harnekar, Poladhpurkar, Deshpande Kaushikh Vishwamitra Jahnayi Kondprabhu Kandhkhorekar, Karmnth Jivandas Vaidya Ancient doctors (Vaidya) hence called as Vaidya
26 Pangu: Pangule, Pangule Pande Kaushikh Vishwamitra Jahnayi Sadashiv Ramakant Pangule ---
27 Korde: Khopkar, Chinchdharkar, Nagarkar, Nadhurkar, Mahadkar Kaushikh Vishwamitra Vyadhreshwari From Vetogi Prabhu Mandhavgada to Sabhajit Krishnadev Physically Strong people called as Korde
28 Likthe: Likthe Gandhmadhan Vyadhreshwari Narayandev Dhvarkanath Likthe Likthe - Writers
29 Vivadhe: Helbhat, Koyile Vyadrapadh Vyadhreshwari Vijayshankar Jivannath Vivadhe Persons who created arguments were Vivadhe
30 Davne: Pagankar, Davne, Pare Pulha Vyadhreshwari Lakshmandev Vishambar Davne Residents of Daman called as Damane later pronounced as Davane
31 Vaghul: Vaghule, Dadal, Dadale Dhandale Sameera Vyadhreshwari Balkrishna Ananthdev Dadale
32 Chitre: Golkar, Golke, Chitnis, Borgaonkar, Pholadhpurkar, Narolikar, Nivadkar Vadgaonkar Shandilya Bhairav Aekvira Bhavani Khanderao Malbap Gulbap Vyadhreswar Shrirangprabhu Mangaldev Bhanu Descendants of Chitrabhanu
33 Mohile: Vakare Aathreya Bhairav Aekvira Narhari Balkrishna Mohile ---
34 Vakare: Vakare Aathreya Bhairav Aekvira Narhari Balkrishna Mohile
35 Muke: Kanakdhand, Dhuru, Dhanu, Kotwal, Deshmukh, Abangrao Naidhrav Bhairav Aekvira Patranath Kanakdhand Narsinhaprabhu Treasurer at the Time of Panipat war
36 Ulukand: Ulukand Gagra Bhairav Aekvira Krishna Dhvarkanath ---
37 Bhise: Bhirvadkar Bhagur Bhairav Aekvira Mr. Mobhise From word Bhayankar
38 Chaubal: Chyavak, Samarth, Parlikar, Chitnis, Thalkar, Cheyulkar Bhardhwaj Bhairav Aekvira A. V. Chaubal Chief Army officer of Chaturang army
39 Thackeray/Thakre: Palkar, Fadnis Bhardhwaj Bhairav Aekvira ---
40 Tivekar: Tilekar, Thilekar Paigya Bhairav Aekvira K. N. Tiveri, G. N. Kekar Resident of Tevar
41 Devpathre: Devpare, Devre, Kekar Paigya Bhairav Aekvira G. N. Kekar Residents of Dev river edge
42 Khale: Poinadkar, Undhirkar, Nagotnekar Paigya Bhairav Aekvira ---
43 Senvi Varnacharya Paigya Bhairav Aekvira From Chief Army Senapati ---